Kamfanin Dillancin Labarai Na AhlulBaiti

Madogara : ابنا
Lahadi

19 Mayu 2024

06:53:56
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Muna Taya Al’ummar Musulmi Murnar Zagayowar Ranar Haihuwar Imam Aliyu Ar-Ridha As Dan Imam Musa Alkazim

“Wani mutum ya wuce wajen Abul-Hasan Ar-Rida (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi) ya ce masa: Ka ba ni gwagwadon girman mutuncinka. Sai ya ce: Ba zan iya ba, sai ya ce: gwargwadon girman mutuncina fa. Sai ya ce: E zan iya, sai ya ce: Ya kai yaro ka ba shi dinari dari biyu, kuma ya raba duk kudinsa a Khurasan a ranar Arafa, sai Fadl dan Sahl ya ce masa: Wannan don neman tabbatuwarsu, sai ya ce: A’a, wannan kyauta ne, Kada ka dauki abin da ka saya domin lada da karamci a matsayin abun bin bashi.

Imam Ali Ar-Ridha As (148 - 203 AH) shi ne Ali bin Musa bin Jaafar, wanda aka fi sani da Ar-Rida, Imami na takwas daga cikin A’immatu Ahlul Baiti As a wajen 'yan Shi'ar Imamiyya. Ya kama jagorancin Imamanci bayan Shahadar mahaifinsa Al-Kazim (as), kuma imamancinsa ya dauki kusan shekaru 20 ne. Yana da laƙabba da yawa waɗanda suka fi shahara a cikinsu shine Ar-Rida, kuma ana masa alkunya da Abul-Hasan na biyu an haife shi a Madina a shekara ta 148 bayan hijira. Kuma yayi shahada ta hanyar ba shi guba da Ma’amunil Abbasi khalifan wancen lokaci a garin Tus a shekara ta 203 bayan hijira, an binne shi a  wanda daga baya garin ya zamo birnin Mashhad, wanda haraminsa ya zama wurin ziyarar miliyoyin mutane daga kasashe daban-daban suke zuwa ziyartarsa.

          Kafin nan Imam Rida (As) ya kasance yana rayuwa ne a Madina, daga baya ya koma Khorasan bisa buqata da umarnin Al-Ma’amun Al-Abbasi. Ma’amun yayi hakane domin ya tilastawa Imam yarda da aminta da mulkinsa, akan hanyarsa lokacin da ya kai ga garin Naishapur, ya ruwaito hadisin sanannen wanda aka fi sani da (Silsilatuz Zahb) sarkar zinare.

Ya shahara a cikin al'ummar zamaninsa da zuhudu da ibada da kyautatawa da taimako ga wadanda ake zalunta, sannan kuma ya shahara da yawan iliminsa da saninsa. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne saboda fifikon da yake da shi a kan duk wadanda suka yi masa mahawara da shi daga ma’abota mazhabobi da addinai daban-daban, kuma wannan shi ne abin da muhawarorinsa suka bayyana wadda Al-Ma'amun Al-Abbasi ya ke sanyawa a gudanar da ita tsakaninsa da manyan malaman mazhabobi da addinai domin ganin ya iya tabbatar da cewa limaman Ahlul-Baiti As ba su da ilimin komai da komai, kamar yadda ya zama sanan nen abu ne a tsakanin ‘yan Shi’arsu da mabiyansu.

Akwai littafai da dama da suka shafi rayuwar Imam Rida, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi, a yaruka daban-daban, kamar Larabci, Farisanci, da Ingilishi, ciki har da littafin “The Political Life of Imam Rida (a.s)”. wanda Sayyid Jaafar Murtada al-Amili ya rubuta, da kuma “Rayuwar Imam Ali bin Musa al-Rida (a.s): bincike da Warwara”, na Baqir Sharif Al-Qurashi.

Nasabarsa Da Siffofinsa:

Shi ne Ali dan Musa dan Ja’afar (a.s) yana da lakabubba  a wajen Shi'a da Sunna, wanda ya fi shahara a cikinsu shi ne Al-Ridha  kuma ana kiransa da Masanin iyalan Muhammad As (عالم آل محمد (ص), kamar yadda aka ruwaito cewa Imam Al-Kazim (a.s) ya ce wa ‘ya’yansa: “Wannan shi ne dan’uwanku Ali Ibn Musa, masanin iyalan Muhammadu” «هذا أخوكم عليّ بن موسى عالم آل محمد» kuma shi ne wanda aka fi sani da Imam mai tausayi, (الإمام الرؤوف) kamar yadda Imam Al-Jawad (a.s) ya anmabce shi a lokacin ziyararsa cewa: “Aminci ya tabbata ga Imam mai tausayi” [السَّلَامُ عَلَى الْإِمَامِ الرَّءُوف‏] Kuma ana kiransa da Azzakiyyu [Tsarkakke] Mai Yarda [Ar-Radiyyu] Shugaba Majibinci [Al’waliyyu], Mai Aminci [Al’wafiyyu] Madaukaki [A’fadilu], mai haƙuri [As-Sabiru] Hasken shiriya [Nurul Huda] Fitilar Allah [Surajul Lahi].

Abin da akafi sanin shi da shi a tarihi da ake masa alkunya kiransa da Abu Al-Hasan, a kuma wasu ruwayoyin ana kiransa da Abul-Hasanis Sani, duba da cewa mahaifinsa Imam Musa Al-Kazim (a.s) shi ne Abul –Hasanil Auwal.

Ya shahara a wajen malamai da masana tarihi cewa an haife shi a Madina a shekara ta 148 bayan hijira, a wata riyawar kuma a shekara ta 153 bayan hijira a ranar Alhamis ko Juma’a da ta dace da 11 ga Zul-Hijja, Zul-qi'dah, ko Rabi'ul Awwal.

Zuriyarsa Da Danginsa:

Bishiyar dangantakar Imam Ridha (a.s)

Shi ne Ali dan Musa dan Ja’afar dan Muhammad dan Ali binul Hussaini dan Ali dan Abi Talib (a.s), kuma dan Fatima Al-Zahra diyar Manzon Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Alihi Wasallam).

Mahaifinsa: Imam Musal Kazim (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi), shine limami na bakwai daga cikin Imaman Shi'ar Imamiyya, kuma kakansa shi ne Imam Jaafar al-Sadik (a.s).

Mahaifiyarsa: Sheikh Al-Saduq ya kawo cewa: Mahaifiyarsa, Ummu Walad  ce (wato kuyanga) da ake kira "Tuktam" ana kiranta da wannan sunan ne a lokacin da take mallakin Imamul-Kazim, sannan ya kira ta da Addahirah a lokacin da ta haifi Imam Al-Ridha, kuma wasu sun ruwaito cewa ana kiranta (Sakanin Nubiyyah) ana kiranta da (Arwa) da (Najma) da (Siman), kuma ana mata alkunya da (Ummul-Banin), littafan tarihi ba su bayar da sahihin bayani game da zuriyarta ba.

Yan'uwansa:

Imam Rida (a.s) yana da ‘yan’uwa (36) maza da mata su ne:

Maza: Ibrahim, Abbas, Al-Qasim, Ismail, Ja’afar, Haruna, Al-Husain, Ahmad, Muhammad, Hamzah, Abdullah, Ishaq, Ubaidullah, Zaid, Al-Hasan, Al-Fadl, da Suleiman.

Mata: Fatimatul-Kubra da Fatimatus-Sughra, (daya daga cikinsu ita ce Fatima Al-Ma'asumah), Ruqayyah, Hakimah, Ummu Abiha, Ruqayyah As-Sughra, Kulthum, Ummu Ja’afar, Lubabah, Zainab, Khadija, Aliyah, Aminah, Hasnah, Yariha, Aisha, Ummu Salama, da Maimunah Ummu Kulthum.

Matansa:

          Wasu ruwayoyin sun ambaci cewa daya daga cikin matansa akwai Ummu Walad, wacce ake ce da ita Subaikah, kuma ta kasance ta fito daga gidan su Mariyatul Qibdiyyah matar Manzon Allah (SAW) kuma mahaifiyar Ibrahim dan Manzon Allah. Haka nan kuma a cikin wasu littafan tarihi cewa, Al-Ma’amun ya ba wa Imam Rida shawarar cewa ya auri ‘yarsa (Ummu Habib) don haka Imam ya yarda da haka, kuma burin Al-Ma’amun na yin aure shi ne kusanto da Imamur Rida da samun tasiri a cikin gidansa, Al-Yafi’i ya dauka cewa sunan ‘yar Al-Ma’amun da ya aurar ga Imam Al-Rida (a.s) shi ne: Ummu Habibah. Shi kuwa Al-Suyuti, ya ambaci labarin auren ‘yar Al-Ma’amun ga Imam Ridha As ba tare da ya ambaci sunanta ba.

'Ya'yansa:

          Maza: Malaman tarihi sun yi sabani dangane da adadin ‘ya’yan Imam Ridha As: Amma sanannen magana a wurin malaman farko shi ne cewa yana da da daya, shi ne Imam Muhammadul-Jawad wanna shine abunda Sheikhul -Mufid ya ba yafi gani, kuma Al-Tabarsi da Ibn Shahr Ashub suka tabbatar, kuma akwai wadanda suka tafi kan ce yana da ‘ya’ya shida maza biyar, wato: Muhammad Al-Qaani, Hassan, Ja’afar, Ibrahim, Husaini, da diya mace kwara daya. Kuma wannan shi ne ra’ayin Al-Irbali, kamar yadda Al-Himyari Al-Qummi ya ruwaito a cikin Littafinsa (Qarbul-Isnad) wata ruwaya wadda daga cikinta aka fahimci cewa Imam As yana da ‘ya’ya maza guda biyu.

Mata: Sheik Saduq ya ruwaito wata ruwaya a cikin isnadinta akwai mace wadda ake daukar cewa ‘yar Imam Ridha As ce wato Fatima. Kamar yadda wadanda suka ce Imam Ridh As yana d ayaya shda tom acikinsu akwai ‘ya mace mai suna A’isha.

An ce kuma yana da wani Da da aka binne shi a birnin Qazwin yana da shekara biyu ko kasa da haka, a halin yanzu an san shi ana ce masa Husaini, kuma ya rasu a lokacin da Imam ya yi tafiya a zuwa Qazwen din a shekara ta 193 bayan hijira.

Siffofinsa:

Littafan tarihi sun ambaci wasu siffofi da Imamur -Ridha, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi ya bambanta da sauran mutane da su, daga cikinsu akwai:

Sifofinsa Na Halitta:

An ruwaito cewa shi mai matsakaicin tsayi ne, kuma fari ne, amma da yawa daga cikin masana tarihi sun ce shi bakar fata ne, wasu kuma suna kamanta shi da yana da tsaninin Kama da kakansa Manzon Allah (SAW).

Sifofin Halayensa Na Dabi'a:

Haka nan Imam Rida (a.s) ya siffantu da halaye na kyawawan dabi'u da suka hada da:

Zuhudu Da Karamci:

An ruwaito ruwayoyi da dama wadanda suka bayyana Zuhudun Imam Rida da karamcinsa:

An karbo daga Muhammad bn Abbad ya ce: “ Al-Ridha ya kasance a lokacin rani yana zama akan tabarma da damina yana sanye da tufafi masu kauri har ammam idan ya bayyana ga jama’a yana sanya kaya masu ado. Sufyan Sauwri ya hadu da shi a cikin wata riga mai tsada da ke dauke da adon alhariri, sai ya ce: “Ya dan Manzon Allah, da ka sa rigar da ba ta kai wannan ba sai ya ce: Ka ba ni hannunka, sai ya riko hannunsa ya sanya a hannun rigarsa, sai ya shafa ji a karkashin wannan akwai wata mai kaushi  Ya ce: Ya Sufyan, tufafi mai laushi na halitta ce, mai kaushi kuma shi ne na gaskiyar.

Akwai abin da Yaqub dan Ishaq Al-Nubakhti ya riwaito, ya ce: “Wani mutum ya wuce wajen Abul-Hasan Ar-Rida (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi) ya ce masa: Ka ba ni gwagwadon girman mutuncinka. Sai ya ce: Ba zan iya ba, sai ya ce: gwargwadon girman mutuncina fa. Sai ya ce: E zan iya, sai ya ce: Ya kai yaro ka ba shi dinari dari biyu, kuma ya raba duk kudinsa a Khurasan a ranar Arafa, sai Fadl dan Sahl ya ce masa: Wannan don neman tabbatuwarsu, sai ya ce: A’a, wannan kyauta ne,  Kada ka dauki abin da ka saya domin lada da karamci a matsayin abun bin bashi.

A Wajen Ibada Da Takawa:

Imam Ridha (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi) ya shahara da yawan kebewa da ganawa ga mahaliccinsa idan halittu suka yi barci:

Al-Shabrawi yana cewa: Ali Ar-Ridha (a.s) ya kasance mutum ne zama da alwala da yin sallah, a tsawon daren gaba daya, yana tashi ya yi alwala ya yi sallah sannan ya kwanta, sai ya kara tashi ya yi alwala, ya yi salla, ya kwanta. Haka ya ke yi har zuwa safiya

An karbo daga Muhammad dan Yahya As-Suli daga kakarsa, mahaifiyar mahaifinsa, kuma sunanta Uzuru ne ta ce: An sayo ni tare da wasu kuyangi da dama, sai aka kai mu wurin Al-Ma'amun, sai ya ba di kyauta ga Ar-Rida (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi), sai na tambayeta dangane da yanayin Ar-Ridha sai ta ce: " Abun da zan iya tunawa daga gareshi sai ni zan iya tuna cewa na kasance ina ganinsa yana yin turare da turaren wuta na Indiya, bayan haka sai ya yi amfani da ruwan fure da miski, idan ya yi sallar asuba ya na yinta ne a farkon lokaci, sannan sai ya yi sujjada bai dagowa da kansa har sai rana ta fito, sai ya tashi ya zauna tare da mutane ko ya hau abun hawa, ba wanda ya iya daga muryarsa a cikin gidansa ko wane ne kuwa – sai dai mutane suna yin magana kadan da kadan.

An karbo daga Ibrahim dan Abbas, yana mai siffanta yanayin Imam Ridha a hadisi cewa: ya kasance mai karanta barci da daddare, mai yawaita tsayuwar dare – ya kasance yana raya mafi yawan dararensa tun daga farkon dare har zuwa wayewar gari. ya kasance yana yawaita azumi, ba ya rasa kwana uku na azumi a wata – kuma yana cewa shi ne azumin zamani gaba daya (Saumud Dahr) – kuma ya kasance mai yawan alheri da sadaka a asirce – kuma mafi yawan haka yana faruwa ne a cikin darare masu duhu – don haka duk wanda ya ce ya gani wani kamarsa a cikin falalarsa, kada ku gaskata shi.

A Wajen Sadaka Da Kyautatawa:

Daya daga cikin fitattun sifofin Imam Ridha (a.s) shi ne tausayinsa da kyautatawa ga fakirai da miskinai, musamman wadanda ake zalunta:

Shaikh Al-Kulayni ya ruwaito daga Abdullahi dan Salt, daga wani mutum daga mutanen Balkh ya ce: “Na kasance tare da Al-Ridha, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi, a lokacin tafiyarsa zuwa Khurasan, sai watarana ya ce: Ya kira da shirya teburin cin abinci sai tattara bayinsa na daga Sudan da sauran mutane, sai na ce: Allah ya sa in zama fansar ku, da kun kebance wani teburin abunci domin mutanen nan – wato bakaken fata- sai ya ce: “Ya isa haka!, Ubangiji mai girma da daukaka Sarki daya ne, uwa daya ce, kuma uba daya ne, kuma sakamakon kowa yana tare da ayyukansa ne”.

A Wajen Ilimi Da Saninsa:

Imam Ridha (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi) ya shahara da kasancewarsa a zamaninsa da dimbin ilimi da saninsa, kuma ma’abuta mazhabobi da addinai daban-daban sun yi masa sheda, kuma akwai ruwayoyi masu yawa a kan haka;

Daga cikinsu akwai abin da Abdul Salam dan Saleh Al-Harawi ya ce: Ban taba ganin wanda ya fi Ali binu Musar-Ridha, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi ba, kuma babu wani malami da ya taba ganinsa ba tare da ya yi masa shaida kwatankwacin shaidarsa. Kuma hakika Al-Ma'amun ya na tara malaman addini da malaman fikihu da malaman tauhidi da dama a cikin majalisinsa, dukkan su kuma ya yi galaba ya ci nasara a kansu har sai da ba wanda ya rage daga cikinsu da bai yarda da tabbatar da falalar fifikonsa ba, tare da tabbatarwa da kansa gazawa, hakika naji Ali bin Musar -Ridha yana cewa: na kasance ina zama a Raudha (ta masallacin Annabi Sawa da ke Madina) kuma malamai suna da dama a Madina da yawa idan wani daga cikin su wata mas’ala ta gagare shi sai su yi nunu da zuwa wajen gaba dayansu sai su aiko zuwa gareni da mas’aloli ni kum na amsa ma su”.

Daga cikinsu akwai abin da aka riwaito daga Abu-Zakwan, ya ce: “Na ji Ibrahim dan Abbas yana cewa: “Ban taba ganin Ar-Ridha, tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata a gare shi an tambaye shi wani abu ba face yana da iliminsa, kuma ban taba gani ba wanda ya fi shi ilimin abun yake kasancewa a zamani daya wuce har zuwa lokacinsa da zamaninsa, kuma Al-Ma'amun ya kasance yana jarraba shi duk bayan kwana uku, ta hanyar yi masa tambaya akan komai, Amma sai ya ba da amsa, kuma jawabinsa da amsarsa da misalsalansa duk sun kasance daga ayoyin Alkur’ani ne, ya kasance ya karance Alkurani cikin kowane kwana uku sai ya ce: “Da naso da zan kammala shi a cikin kasa da kwanaki uku da na kammala, sai dai ban taba cin karo da aya ba ba tare da  nayi tunani a cikinta da game da abin da aka saukar da ita, da kuma a cikin lokacin aka saukar da ita, saboda hakane na na ksance ina kammala shi a cikin kwanaki uku.

Iliminsa Na Dukkan Harsuna:

Imam Ridha (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi) ya bambanta tare da kebanta da iya magana da kowane al’umma da yarensu, kuma hakan ya tabbata daga ruwayoyin da ya yi magana da su:

Ismail Al-Sindhi yana cewa: Na ji a Indiya cewa Allah yana da hujja a cikin Larabawa, sai na fita nemansa, sai akayi nuni da jagoranci zuwa ga Ar-Ridha (amincin Allah ya tabbata a gare shi), sai na tafi wurinsa, kuma ni ban iya Larabci ba, sai na gaishe shi da harshen Sindi, sai ya amsa mini da yarena, sai na fara yi masa magana da Sindi, sai yana amsa mini a cikin yaren, na ce masa: Na ji Allah. yana da iko a cikin Larabawa, sai na fita nemansa, sai na ce da shi: Ni naji akwai wani hujjar Allah a cikin larabawa saina fito nemansa, sai ya ce da ni: Ni ne wannan hujjar Allah din, sai ya ce da ni Ka tambayi abin da kake so, sai na tambaye shi game da wasu mas’aloli, ya amsa mani su da yarena.

Abu Al-Salt Al-Harawi yana cewa: “Ar-Ridha (a.s) ya kasance yana magana da mutane da harsunansu, sai naia masa magana dangane da hakan, sai ya ce: Ya Abas-Salt, ni ne hujjar Allah ga halittarSa, kuma Allah ba zai riki wata hujja a kan wasu mutane ba, alhali kuwa bai san harsunansu ba, shin maganar Amirul Mu’umin Ali (As)  ba ta zo gareka ba: “ An bamu baiwar iya magana’ wannan kuwa ba komaia bane sai ilimin harsuna”.

Muhallin Rayuwarsa:

An haifi Imam Ridha (a.s) a Madina, kuma ya yi shahada a Tus kuma saboda an samu sabani a tarihin haihuwarsa da shekarunsa yana da wuya a iya tantance ainihin lokacin da ya zauna a Madina.

Amma abin da aka sani shi ne ya shafe kimanin shekaru goma sha bakwai na Imamancinsa a Madina - wato tsakanin shekara ta 183 bayan hijira zuwa shahadar Imamul-Kazim (a.s) har zuwa kaurarsa zuwa Khurasan a shekara ta 201 bayan hijra.

Bayan ya koma Tus ya zauna a garin Tus, wato shekara biyu kenan da ya yi acen, inda ya yi shahada a shekara ta 203 bayan hijira bayan zaman a Madina da Tus ya zauna dan kankanin lokaci a Kufa da Basra.

Shaidarsa:

Malaman Shi’a da malaman tarihi sun yi ittifaqi a kan cewa Imam Ridha (a.s) ya yi shahada ne sakamakon gubar da aka sanya masa a cikin inabi ko rumman bisa ga umarnin Al-Ma’amun Al-Abbasi.

Sheikh Al-Mufid ya ruwaito cewa, Abdullahi dan Bashir ya ce: “Al-Ma’amun ya umarce ni da in tsawaita farcena fiye da yadda aka saba, kuma kada in nuna wa kowa haka, sai na yi sai ya kira ni ya fito da wani abu mai kama da tsamiya. Sai ya ce da ni: Ka cudanya wannan da dukkan hannayenka, sai na yi, sai ya tashi ya bar ni. Sai Ar-Ridha (As) ya shiga gareshi ya ce da shi: ya kake? Sai ma’amun ya ce: Ina fatan in zama nagari. Sai ya ce masa: “Yau alhamdulillahi  nima nima na gari ne, shin wani a cikin masu yin hidima akwai wanda ya zo maka a wannan rana? Sai ya ce: A’a, sai Al-Ma’amun ya fusata ya daka wa bayinsa tsawa, sai ya ce: “Ku dauki wannan ruwan Ruman nan yanzun nan, domin shi wani abu ne da ba’a iya wadatuwa da shi ba (ana bukatarsa), sai ya kira ni ya ce: Ku kawo mana a rumman, sai na kawo masa, sai ya ce in matse shi da hannunka, sai na yi, kuma Al-Ma'amun ya ba da shi ga Ar-Ridha ya sha da hannunsa, shi ne dalilin wafatinsa.

          Al-Ma’amun ya binne shi a gidan Hamid bin Qahtaba Adda’i, watau wurin da Harun ya ke kauyen Sinabad inda masallacin Razawi yake a yau a Iran a cikin tsarkakken haramin Radawi mai tsarki a lardin Khurasan Razawi, Mashhad.