RIWAYAR HADISI DA GUDUMMUWAN AL-MASHAYIKHUTH THALATHA WA’YANDA SUKA RUBUTA AL-KUTUBUL ARBA’A NA SHI’A WAJEN TATTARA HADISAI Za

RIWAYAR HADISI DA GUDUMMUWAN AL-MASHAYIKHUTH THALATHA WA’YANDA SUKA RUBUTA AL-KUTUBUL  ARBA’A  NA SHI’A WAJEN TATTARA HADISAI Za

Na Sheikh Hamzah Muhammad Lawal
A’uzu billahi minash Shaidanir Rajeem.Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem.
Wasallallahu Ala Muhammadin wa Alihid Dayyibinad Dahireen.

Muna so ne mu san su waye ne wa’yannan shehunnan guda uku daga hadisin Umar Bin Hanzala a Tafsilush shari’ah wanda yake shine sharhin Tahrirul Wasilah na As-Sayyidul Imamul Khomainiy(qn).
Muna magana ne akan dalilai na wayanda suka tafi zuwa ga cewa dole  A’alam ake bi a wurin da yake ana iya gane A’alam din,sannan ana iya gane fatwar shi,ana iya kuma gane bambamcinta da fatwan waninshi.To,shine muka zo riwaya,daya daga cikin dalilai wanda shine na biyar shine wasu riwayoyi.To,riwayar farko itace riwayar Umar Ibn Hanzala wadda Ash-Shaikh Lankarani yace shehunnan nan guda uku sun rawaito.
To,shine muke so mu san su wane ne wa’yannan shehunnan guda uku?To,a nan sai muka ga ya kamata mu kara fadada fa’ida mu dan yi bincike kadan akan riwayar hadisi a wurin malaman shi’a.Muka ce wannan za a sanya shi ya zama bahasi mustaqilli.To,shine muka tafi ya zuwa ga cewa riwaya din Hadisi akwai;Shafahiyyah ko Shafawiyyah,akwai Tahririyyah,wannan muqaddimar muka faro.
Sannan sai muka fara bincike akan maraahil na dawwana hadis a wurin shi’a din.Yanzu muna marhala ta farko,wato “Marhalatul Majmu’atis saqira”,marhalar kanana-kananan littafai wa’yanda aka rubuta akan hadisi.Wannan ana iya ce mata “marhalatul riwayatil mubashirah wal mubakkirah” kaman yanda muka ce.
Muka ce wannan itace marhala din wasu gungu na littafai wa’yanda wasu daga cikin malamai na shi’a suka rawaito riwayoyi daga A’immah din Ahlul-Bait (as) ko su da kansu kai tsaye daga A’immah din ko kuma ta hanyar wasida guda daya kawai,haka muka ce.Irin wa’yannan littafan muna ce masu “kutub”,muna ce masu “musannafat”,muna ce masu “usul”.Guda daya muna ce mashi “kitab”,muna ce mashi “musannaf”,ko muna ce mashi “asl”.
Muka ce wa’yannan sun yawaita har sun kai guda dari hudu(400),sune wa’yanda muke ce ma “Al-Usul Al-Arba’u Ma’a” wato asulla guda dari hudu,da ma’anar cewa Sahabban A’immah dari hudu suka rawaito su.Kowanne daga cikinsu littafi,ba wai hadisi daya ko hadisi biyu ba.Hadisan da ya ji.Muka ce yawansu yana komawa ya zuwa ga dalili guda biyu;
Dalili na farko,-kaman yanda shi mawallafin littafin da muke karantawa ya zo dashi wanda ya kamata shine dalili na biyu a ra’ayin mu,shine yawan masu riwaya daga shi’a wa’yanda suka rawaito daga A’immah din Ahlul Bait (as).’Yan shi’a masu riwaya daga A’immah suna da yawa sosai,wanda yake nuna maka cewa A’immah din Ahlul-Bait ba kebantattun mutane bane wa’yanda ba a sansu ba.Musamman a marhala din Al-Imamain Al-Baqirain ko As-Sadiqain,wato Al-Baqir (as) da As-Sadiq (as).
A lokacin canjin daula,faduwar daular Banu Umayyah da kafuwar daular Banul Abbas kafin su kafu din su Banul Abbas.Sai ya zama sunyi amfani da wannan fursar, a wannan daman sun yada ilimin Ahlul-Bait (as) da yawa.Su wa’yannan guda biyun,malamai da yawa sun yi karatu a hannun su,kuma sun rawaito riwayoyi,kuma har da wa’yanda ba ‘yan shi’a ba dubbai.
Na farko kenan,yawan ‘yan shi’a wa’yanda suka rawaito riwayoyi daga A’immah (as),yawan malaman shi’a wa’yanda suka rawaito riwayoyi daga A’immah din Ahlul-Bait (as).
Sannan na biyu,yawan abinda su A’immah din suka bayar na riwayoyi.A’immah (as) sun bada riwayoyi masu yawan gaske.Yawan hadisan da A’immah (as) suke rawaitowa daga Manzon Allah(sawa) wa’yanda wadannan hadisan kaman yanda yake cewa ;
“Hakika na riga nayi bayani a littafi na na “tarikhu tashri’il islami” cewa wa’yannan hadisan wa’yanda A’immah (as) suka rawaito daga Manzon Allah(sawa) suna da yawan da ya kai sun iya lullube dukkan fage na shari’ar musulunci”.
Dukkan shari’ar musulunci gabaki daya sun rawaito riwayoyi a cikin ta,ba wani abu wanda suka rage.Hadisai ne masu yawan gaske a dukkan majaloli na shari’ar addinin musulunci wa’yanda suka rawaito daga Manzon Allah (sawa).
Kuma wa’yannan hadisan wa’yanda A’immah suka rawaito daga Manzon Allah (sawa) suna biyan dukkan buqatun faqihi a wurin “istimbad”,na daga nassosi a majal din tsamo hukunce-hukunce.
Saboda zamunut tashri’I a wurin mu mu shi’a ya fi yalwa,sannan ya fi jinkirin karewa fiye da yanda yake a wurin Ahlus Sunnah wal jama’a,da dalilin samuwar A’immah (as) da I’itiqadin “ismah”dinsu a mu.
Dukkan wa’yannan ababen da A’immah suke fadi,dukkansu sunan su riwayoyi,ba ijtihadoji bane daga A’immah (as),riwayoyi ne wa’yanda suka karbo su daga Manzon Allah(sawa),kuma albarkacin Isma ya zama muna da siqa dasu.
Sabanin yanda yake a makarantar Khulafah,a wurin Ahlus Sunnah wal jama’ah da ma’anar cewa zamanin hadisai ya kare da tafiyar Manzon Allah(sawa) zuwa “Ar-Rafiqul A’alah” saboda haka mubakkiran hadisai suka yanke masu.Ya zama cewa daga lokacin har zuwa yanzu ko kuma kace har zuwa lokacin Imam na goma sha daya,har ma na sha biyu a wurin mu mu lokacin ijtihadoji kawai suke yi.
Suna naqaltowa daga Sahabbai wayanda basu yi I’itiqadin isma dinsu ba,sannan kuma saura sai ya zama ijtihadoji.Saboda haka sai zama abinda babu nassi akan shi ya zama yana da yawa a wurinsu,wato abinda suke ce ma “mala nassa fihi”.Suna da mas’aloli masu yawan gaske da suke ganin ba nassi akai,saboda haka a wurin sai suyi amfani da ijtihad.Ijtihad da ma’anar “qiyas”a lokacin.
Saboda haka Ahlus Sunnah sun riga Shi’a fara ijtihad da shekaru masu yawa,na farko kenan.Amma ijtihad din da suke yi,suna yi ne da ma’anar ra’ayi,da ma’anar qiyas na biyu kenan.Sannan na uku,suna daukaka darajar qiyasoshinsu da ra’ayoyinsu a mustawa din istinbad zuwa ga darajar “kitab” da “sunnah” a hujjiyyah.
Hujjar qiyasin faqihi –a makaranta khulafa-daidai take da hujjar aya da hujjar hadisi,shine abinda nake so na fadi kiri-kiri.Suna da “istihsanat” masu yawa,suna da “masaaleh” masu yawa,wato ‘al-masaalahul mursala”,wa’yannan din suna daga cikin masaadir na istinbad.
Masaadir na Istinbad a wurinmu biyu ne;sai muce “masdaran”amma muna cewa guda hudu ne,sune;Al-Kitab,As-Sunnah,Al-Aqlu da Al-Ijma’i.Wa’yannan Al-Aqlu da Al-Ijma’ suna komawa ya zuwa Kitab da Sunnah a wurinmu.Saboda haka karshen al’amari a wurin mu masdarorin istinbad guda biyu ne.
Ash-Shahidus Sadr yana cewa babu wata mas’ala wadda aql yai idrakin ta face zaka iya samun asalin ta a cikin shari’ah,saboda haka yace bama buqatar aql.Ash-Shahidus Sadr wanda yake babban failasuf mai aiki akan asasin aql amma yake cewa ban dogaro da aql a istinbad,saboda abinda aql yayi idrakin shi wanda shari’ah ba tayi ta’arrudi ya zuwa gare shi ba.Kuma akan asasin istiqrar,da ma’anar akan asasin tatabbu’I da bibiya da bincike,bama kawai ya ga dama ne ya fadi haka.
Kowane hukunci da aql ya kai ya zuwa gare shi ya bibiya ya samu asalinshi a cikin shari’a.Sabanin yanda yake a wurin Ahlus-Sunnah,in suka ce maka “Al-Maslahal Mursala” karfin ta daya da kitab da sunnah.In suka ce “Al-Istihsan”karfin daya da kitab da sunnah.
Saboda haka a taqaice yawan hadisan A’immah (as) suka rawaito daga Manzon Allah (sawa) wa’yanda suke sun rufe dukkan shari’ar musulunci gabaki dayanta,sannan sun biya bugatun dukkan faqihi a dukkan majaloli.Shi yasa ya zama “usul” da “kutub” suka yi yawa,Al-Musannafat din suka yi yawa suka kai dari hudu.Ku dinga talkizi a kan wa’yannan abubuwan da muke fadi da wanda zamu fadi a gaba,saboda kusan qiman littafan mu wa’yanda suke a hannayen mu a yanzu.Ku din ga sanin yanda asalin littafanmu,daga ina suka taho?
Yanzu muna marhalar Al-musannafat ko Al-Mu’allafat ko Al-Majmu’atus sagira,sune wa’yannan littafan wa’yanda suka kunshi hadisai da riwayoyi wa’yanda malaman shi’a suka rawaito kai tsaye daga A’immah (as) ko da wasida guda daya.Wannan hadisin yana da qima ko bai da qima?Shi ya ji da kanshi-wannan mizah ta farko kenan,zamu kawo maku sauran mizozi na wa’yannan hadisan na marhalar farko a wurin shi’a.Wa’yanda suka ji kai tsaye daga A’immah (as) ko da wasida.
Daga wa’yannan majmu’o’in amma har a wannan marhala din kala biyu ne;akwai malaman shi’a wa’yanda basu lizimci –a marhalar Ar-Riwayal mubashirah-sharadin riwayah kai tsaye ba daga Imam mubasharatan .Basu lizamtawa kansu cewa abinda zan rubuta a littafina sai abinda na ji kai tsaye daga Imam ba.Sai dai -cewa duk da basu lizimci cewa zasu rawaito kai tsaye daga Imam (as)-duk hadisan da zasu rawaito suna a cikin zamanin A’immah din,wato A’immah suna da rai a lokacin.Wato sun rawaito ne daga wa’yanda suka ji daga A’immah ko da wasidan ta wuce daya kuma a cikin zamanin A’immah.Su kasa suke da na farkon,amma suma suna da qima.
Saboda haka ne suma wa’yannan riwayoyin ake ce masu riwayoyi na farko.Rukuninsu daya saidai kawai darajarsu ba ta kai wadancan ba.Rukuninsu daya da ma’anar cewa sune gungu riwayoyi na farko a wurinmu daga A’immah (as).Bambamcinsu shine wadancan sun lizimci riwaya kai tsaye,wa’yannan zamanin su daya amma basu lizamta ma kansu riwaya kai tsaye,saidai dukkansu suna a zamanin A’immah(as),shi yasa su ma na biyun aka sanya su a gungun riwayoyi na farko.

Akwai cigaba.


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پیام رهبر انقلاب به مسلمانان جهان به مناسبت حج 1441 / 2020
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