DAWWANA HADISI A WAJEN MALAMAN SHI’AH

DAWWANA HADISI A WAJEN MALAMAN SHI’AH


_______Sheikh Hamzah Muhammad Lawal

Yusuf Sulaiman Ya rubuta

 Zama na 7 (2)




….Cigaba


Kari, in mutum da waccan ma’anar da muka fadi kuma ya zama malam yana sa wane irin rawani ne? Yana sa baki. A lokacin Abbasawa aka fara wannan. Da yake su ‘ya’yan Ammi ne, ‘ya’yan ‘yan uwan A’immah ne, sai suka ce masu su dinga sa bakin rawani saboda haiba, Kaman Al-Imamur Ridha nake jin. Sarkin lokacin ya roke shi akan su dinga sa bakaken rawunna saboda idan baki ya hadu da wannan ja din ko fari yana kara kwarjini da haiba, sai Imam din ya karba. Daga nan sai ya zama cewa Sayyidai ne suke sanya baki, sauran kuma sauran launika.

In mutum Mirza ne, shi ya kan sa kore, wato tsanwa, musamman in ba malami bane, zaka gansu da kore ko su rataya shi a wuya ko su daura, ana ce masu Mirza. Wannan duk ba a cikin karatun mu yake ba. Wannan duk ya zo ne saboda muna so muyi bincike akan Al-Mashayikhuth Thalatha Kaman yanda Ash-Sheikhul Lankarani ya ambace su a wancan hadisin na Umar Ibn Hanzala. Sai muka ga ya kamata mu zo da wannan fa’ida din ta bincike a kan hadis. Bari mu kara yalwata bincike akan hadis din domin mu samu fa’ida kadan. Mun ce wannan mun fadi ne akan dawwana hadisi a wurin shi’a, to yaya yake a wurin su Ahlul Bait (as)?

DAWWANA HADISI A WAJEN AHLULBAIT (AS)

Ahlul-Bait (as) ya suka yi mu’amala a wurin hadis? Suna daga cikin wa’yanda suka halatta riwaya da dawwana hadisi, ko suna daga cikin wa’yanda suka haramta? Wannan aiki na malaman shi’a wanda muka gani zuwa yanzu na yanda suka yi mu’amala da hadisai suka fahimci hadisai sosai, suka tace suka tantance, wannan sun karbo shi daga wurin A’immah (as) ko ko ijtihad ne daga gare su?

In muka yi bincike zamu ga cewa dukka AhlulBait (as) gaba dayansu farawa daga Ali(as) zuwa na karshensu, ko kuma farawa daga Manzon Allah (sawa) zuwa na karshensu gabaki dayansu sun tafi a kan halatta riwaya da tadwin na hadis, daya Kenan.

Sannan na biyu, sun tafi a kan shajja’awa da zaburantarwa da kwadaitarwa akan a yi riwaya a yi tadwin na hadis. Ba a taba samun wani zamani daga cikin zamunna wanda mu’amala da hadis ta yanke a gidan shi’a ba tun daga AhlulBait (as) har zuwa yau din nan, alhalin an samu wannan fatra ta yankewar riwaya da tadwin a duniyar sunnah. Zamu ga haka insha Allah a wannan bahsin da muke yi, saboda haka da’awan da malaman sunnah suke yi akan riko da hadisi da sauransu da kuma cewa sune suke da hadisai, shi’a basu da, wannan da’awa ce wadda babu diqqa a cikinta, shine mafi karancin taqdiri da zamu fadi da kuma ladabi. Sai mu ce ba diqqa a cikin wannan da’awar asasan. Dan shi’a bai kamata ya dinga jin tsoron wannan da’awar ba.

Dawwana hadisi har da riwaya amma shi yana so yayi Magana akan dawwana kowane hadisi a wurin AhlulBait (as). Wannan babin, wannan bahasin yana da yalwa sosai ba zan shiga cikinshi ba sosai, in ba haka ba sai mu zo mu kawo adillah, nassoshi wa’yanda a cikinsu A’immah (as) tun daga Manzon Allah (sawa) suka fadi ‘alfaz’. Wato Kenan, ‘sunnah lafziyyah’ inda suka yi amfani da kalman ‘kataba’ da ‘ishtiqaqat’ dinta, wannan yana da tsawo, tun daga Manzon Allah har zuwa Imam Ali, Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, halumma jarra, har zuwa karshe da lafazin ‘kataba’ da ‘ishtiqaqat’ din ‘kataba’ da duk abinda yake cikin wannan ma’anar, sannan ‘uktub’ da sauransu. Kaman lokacin da Manzon Allah (sawa) yake cewa ‘uktubu li Abi Shat’. Lokacin da Manzon Allah ya fadi wata magana sai Abu Shat yace a rubuta mashi, sai yace ku rubuta mashi, da ire iren wa’yannan wa’yanda basu da iyaka. Daya Kenan.

Sannan sai mu zo da sunnah dinsu ‘fi’iliyyah’- me muke nufi da ‘fi’iliyyah’? Littafan da suka rubuta. Littafan da A’immah (as) suka rubuta. Sannan ban da haka da mawaqif dinsu lokacin da suka yi muwajaha da ‘mani’in’, wato da wa’yanda suka hana riwaya da tadwin. Sannan sai mu shiga cikin bahasin fiqhu akan cewa meye asali a wurin Tadwin? Shine ‘ibaha’ ko shine ‘hurma’? AL-ASLU FIL KITABA shine ‘ibaha’ ko shine ‘hurma’? Cewa asali a rubutu shine ibaha, hurma istisna’I ne a asali a kitaba? Ko cewa hurma ce amma ibaha itace istisna’ a asalin rubutu? Wannan bahasi ne mai tsawo sosai.

Sannan sai mu yi Magana akan cewa da aiki da lafazi wane ya fi karfi? Suna da ka’ida malaman Usul Fiqhi, suna cewa DILALATUL FI’ILI ALAL IBAHA MUQADDAMATUN ALA DILALATIL TARKI ALAL HURMA. Ma’ana; Nunawan aikata aiki akan halaccin wannan aikin ita ake gabatarwa a kan nunawan kamewa daga aiki akan haramcin wannan aikin. Wato, In Ma’asum ya aikata aiki bai magana ba, wannan aikin da ya aikata yana nuni da cewa aqalla wannan aikin halal ne, shine mafi aqalla ko da baka daukaka shi zuwa istihbab ko wujub ba. Aqalla wannan aikin ya nuna ‘hilliyyah’,‘ibaha’. Amma in bai aikata wani aiki ba ko aikin da bai aikata ba, wannan babu dalili akan hurma, bai aikata ba shike nan. Saboda haka kullum aiki ya fi karfi a dilala fiye da kamewa da rashin aiki. DILALATUL FI’ILI ALAL IBAHA MUQADDAMATUN ALA DILALATIL TARKI ALAL HURMA. Sannan kuma kullum Sunnah Fi’iliyyah ta fi karfi a ‘dilala’, haka suke cewa. Bamu da lokacin shiga cikin wa’yannan. Mun yi su a wasu gurare, ko da ba yalwataccen yin ba amma dai mun yi su a wasu gurare lokacin da muke bincike akan hadis.

Sai yace;- wato ma’abucin Usulul Hadis da muke karantawa Kenan- Amma a wurin AhlulBait (as) al’amarin ya kasance akasi. Wato yana so yace akan akasin ijtihadin Ahlus Sunnah kan hadis da tadwin. Ahlus Sunnah sun tafi akan ka da a rubuta hadisi. Bari in kawo nassi wanda yake nuna ka da a rubuta hadisi din wanda malaman Sunnah suka yi riko a gare shi, dan a gane me yake nufi da akasi a nan, sai in gama shi sannan sai in zo in duba su kuma ya Ahlus Sunnah suka kalli dawwana hadisi? Yanzu kawai bari in yi istifada da wannan hadisin guda daya.

Yana cewa; “Hakika Al-Harawiy ya fitar daga littafin zargin Magana ‘Zammul Kalam’ ta hanyar Az-Zuhriy, yace; - wato Az-zuhriy yace; Urwa Ibn Zubair ya bani labari cewa Umar Dan Khattab ya so ya rubuta fada’il, ya so ya rubuta sunan ‘sunnoni’, kuma ya nemi shawaran Sahabban Manzon Allah (sawa) akan sunan din. Sai dukkan Sahabban Manzon Allah (sawa) suka yi mashi ishara da wannan (wato ya rubuta)- Umar dan Khattab ya so ya rubuta hadisai sai ya nemi shawaran Sahabbai akan wannan manufar tashi sai dukkan Sahabbai suka ce mashi ya rubuta. Wannan kawai ya isa ya nuna maka ra’ayi amm, wato ‘ittijahi amm’ a cikin addinin Musulunci dangane da Tadwinin din Sunnah shine rubuta hadisi. Dukkansu gabaki daya suka yi mashi ishara akan haka.

To, bayan neman shawara da samun shawara din sai Umar dan Khattab ya zauna wata daya yana neman zabin Allah dangane da wannan saboda yana shakka akai. Yana shakka akan ra’ayin jamhur da Ammah din Sahabbai gabaki dayansu. Yaushe ya kamata yayi istikhara? Menene mauqif din Umar? -Ku yi hakuri naqaltowa muke yi, Zuhriy fa ya fadi cewa Urwa ya fada mashi. Laifinmu in mun yi shine naql. Sai gabaki dayansu sun tafi akan cewa a rubuta sunan. Amma Umar dan Khattab shi akan kanshi shi kadai yana ganin kada a rubuta. Saboda haka lokacin da ya nemi shawararsu(sahabbai), duka suka ce ayi sai ya zama yaya? Bai so yayi.

Sai ya zauna wata daya- inji Urwa- yana neman shawara daga Allah saboda yana shakka akan haka. To, sai wata rana (Umar dan Khattab)  ya wayi gari alhalin Allah Ya riga yayi mashi azama- Allah Yayi mashi azama yace. Akan me? Kada ya rubuta. Yanzu aikin wanene wannan? Aikin Allah suka ce. Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah suna da ban mamaki. Abinda suke zargin mutane dashi su yafi cancanta dasu. Wannan mu kawai riwaya muke yi da naqal kaman yanda muka ce, ka da a ji haushi. Ba mu kashe zomon ba, ko ratayan ma ba a bamu ba.

Sai (Umar dan Khattab) ya zo zai yi shela. Sai yace; Hakika na taba yi maku Magana- wato ku sahabbai- dangane da rubuta sunan, kun san abinda na gaya maku, sannan sai na tsaya na fara tunani sai na gane sai na tuna cewa akwai wasu mutane daga cikin Ahlul Kitabi- Ka ga wannan ba istikharan Allah bane kuma yanzu, wato ba Allah ne ya bada zabi ba- gabanninku sun rubuta wasu littafai daban tare da littafin Allah. Wannan dai shine  ra’ayin nashi original na asali. Sai ga wasu mutane daga Ahlul Kitab sun rubuta tare da littafin Allah wasu littafai sai suka kifu akansu, wato suka bar littafin Allah din. Sai suka kifu akansu suka bar littafain Allah.

Sai (Umar dan Khattab) ya cigaba da cewa; Kuma ni wallahi ba zan taba cakuda littafin Allah da wani ‘shai’in’ wato ‘ta’amim’, wannan tanwin din. Ba zan taba cakuda littafin Allah da wani abu ba, wani abun, wato har sunnah. Saboda haka sai ya bari ya fasa rubuta sunan. Wannan ka duba shi a cikin Tamnirul Hawalik, akalla littafi daya kawai.

Nan wurin, kafin mu zo muyi ishara kadan akan cewa na farko ba shawaran Allah bace, ijtihad ne daga Umar dan Khattab. Na biyu qiyas ma’al fariq ne,  wadancan littafan da Ahlulkitab suka rubuta in ya inganta akan sun rubuta tare da littafin Allah littafai ne ba hadisan Manzanninsu ba. Sunan, hadisan Manzon Allah (sawa) ba wanin Al-Kur’ani bane. Basa shagaltarwa daga barin Al-Kur’ani. Su tafsirin Al-Kur’ani ne, tare suke da Al-Kur’ani. Ba yanda za a yi karanta sunan ya shagaltar da kai, ya gafalantar da kai daga barin Al-Kur’ani, ya mantar da kai Al-Kur’ani. To, akan wannan ne Ahlus Sunnah suka tafi in na zo lokacin zan kara yin bayani da sharhi sosai, da hadisan da suka dogara akansu da sauransu.

To, sai (ma’abucin littafin Usulul Hadis) yace; Amma a wurin Ahlul Bait (as) al’amarin ya kasance akan akasi. Akasi wato rubuta sunan. Su suka fara rubuta sunan. Muna bugun kirji muce Ahlul-Bait (as) a duniyar Musulmi su suka fara rubuta Sunnah. Ta yadda yake su (Ahlul-Bait)- muna magana akan Ahlul-Bait ba shi’a ba yanzu- sun lizimci Sunnar Manzon Allah (sawa) basa rubuwa da ita bata rabuwa dasu, saboda haka sai suka rubuta hadisi suka dawwana shi a kananan littafai da kuma littafai manya wa’yanda suka tattaro gabaki daya. Kuma riwayar Al-Kulaini wadda ta gabata wadda mu bamu karanta ta ba hakika tana bamu sura kiri kiri dangane da  wannan. Abinda yasa na karanto saboda zai kawo wani bangare na ta wanda yake da dangantaka damu ko da bamu ga riwayar gabaki da yaba.

Saboda a karshe wannan riwaya din fadin Amirul Mu’uminin Ali (as) ya zo a cikinta cewa hakika na kasance ina shiga ma Manzon Allah (sawa) kowane yini shiga daya, kuma kowane dare shiga daya, wato na kan je mashi sau biyu ko sau daya. A cikin yini sau daya, kowane yinin duniya. Sannan cikin dare, kowane daren duniya sau daya. Sai ya kebe ni a cikin wannan ‘dakla’ din, wato a wannan zuwan, bai hada kowa da ni, har da iyalinshi da kowa da kowa, mu biyu kawai. Ina jujjuyawa tare da shi duk inda ya juya. Bani nake juyawa ba, shi yake juyawa sai ya zama nake bi. A wa’yannan riwayoyin suna da fa’idoji masu yawan gaske wanda suke cewa bamu yarda da Manzon Allah (sawa) ba, su A’immah suna nuna mana gayan biyayya ga Annabi ne a kalmominsu da lafuzzansu kana iya fahimta.

ADURU MA’AHU HAISU DAR, sai ya zama ina juyawa tare dashi shi Manzon Allah (sawa) duk inda ya juya sau da kafa. Wannan ADURU MA’AHU HAISU DAR din ban da fa’idar cewa shi yake bin Annabi ba Annabi yake bin shi ba, da kuma Imani da cewa akwai Annabi din ba shi ba, akwai karin fa’ida cewa ba karatu bane na lafazi. ADURU MA’AHU HAISU DAR, ramzi ne, cewa ba karatu bane na lafazi, ‘talqeen’ ne wanda yake ‘qalbiy’, shi yasa za a iya samun abubuwa da yawa a cikin mudda kadan gajera kaman ‘talefasi’, Magana ce amma da kwalkwalwa da ruhi, baya bugatan lafuzza da harshe. Shine wannan abinda yake cewa ALLAMANI HABIBI RASULULLAH ALFA BABIN MINAL ILMI YANFATIHU LI MIN KULLI BABIN ALFU BAB.

Manzon Allah (sawa) ya koya min kofofi dubu na ilimi, daga kowace kofa daya kofa dubu tana budewa, wato kofa miliyan, usul miliyan ya koya min. Wannan fa a cikin dakikoki ne kadan ya faru. Wannan ba a wannan lokacin bane, lokacin wafatin Manzon Allah (sawa) ne, da ya zo ya sa kunnensa inda Manzon Allah (sawa) suka yi kus kus munajati munajati da ya taso daga haka shine sai yace ALLAMANI RASULULLAH…… Wannan ta’alim din wane irin ta’alim ne? Dakikoki a koya maka babobi dubu biliyan daya? Irin wannan ne. Kaman irin yanda Manzon Allah (saw) ya sanya ma Al-Hasan yatsanshi yana tsotso lokacin da aka haife shi, shine abu na farko da ya fara samu. Yatsan Annabi yake tsotso ko ya bashi harshenshi ya tsotsa.

Ina juya tare dashi duk inda ya juya, ni kadai kawai. A’ALAMUKUM ALI, AFQAHUKUM ALI, AFRAGUKUM ALI, AQDAKUM ALI. WA QAD ALIMA ASHABU RASULILLAH ANNAHU LAM YASNA’A ZALIKA LI AHADIN MINAN NASI GAIRI. Kuma hakika Sahabban Manzon Allah (sawa) sun sani- inji Ali (as)- kuma sun yi I’itirafi tunda sun san haka din akan cewa bai aikata wannan ba da wani daga cikin mutane in ba ni ba. Wani lokaci a gidana ne ba gidanshi ba, ya kan zo gida ne shi Manzon Allah (sawa) haka shi ya fi yawa, a wasu lokuta na kanje in same shi.


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