DAWWANA HADISI A WAJEN MALAMAN SHI’A ____Sheikh Hamzah Muhammad Lawal Zama na 4(1)

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Brief

Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim.Wasallallahu Ala Muhammadin Wa Alihid Dayyibinad Dahirin.

A tattaunawa da muke yi dangane da dawwana hadisi a wurin malaman shi’a,mun ga marhala ta farko wadda muka ce itace  Marhalatul Majmu’atis Sagirah.Wato kenan,marhala din  kananan littafai,wa’yanda su kuma sun kasu kashi biyu ne muka ce;kashi na farko sune na ma’abuta usul ko kutub ko musannafat,wa’yanda adadinsu ya kai dari hudu.Wa’yanda muke ce ma su “Al-Usul Al-Arba’u Ma’a” ko “Al-Usul Al-Arba’u Mi’a”, duka daya ne.
Asulla dari hudu wa’yanda muka ce su mawallafan wa’yannan asulla dari hudun,mawallafansu ma’abutansu su sun kebanta da wata al’ada,wata dabi’a wadda itace in suka ji riwaya daya daga cikin A’immah (as) su kanyi gaggawa wurin rubuta ta da sajjala ta da kiyaye ta,saboda ka da mantuwa ta bijiro masu.Dama a asali sun daukan ma kansu cewa zasu yi riwaya ne kawai kai tsaye daga Imam (as) ko kuma da wasida guda daya zuwa ga Imam (as).
Muka ce suna da mazaya masu yawa wadanda suke bambamta su da sauran masu riwayan hadisi a wurin malaman shi’a.Muka ce suna da “da’ab” Kaman yanda muka nuna.”Da’ab” ,wato Kenan al’ada ko dabi’a ko yanayi ko sha’ani wanda shine wannan da muka fadi,wato suna gaggawa da dab’in riwaya ba tare da jinkiri ba saboda tsoron rafkannuwa ko mantuwa ko gafala ko kuskure ko abinda yayi kama da haka.
Da’ab muka shine dabi’a,muka ba da misali da aya a Alkur’ani inda yake cewa: “TAZRA’UNA SAB’A SININA DA’ABAN “.Akwai ayoyi a Alkur’ani wa’yanda suka yi amfani da wannan kalman,Kaman inda Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala yake cewa : “KA DA’ABI ALI FIR’AUNA WALLAZINA MIN QABLIHIM,KAZZABU BI AYATINA FA AKHAZAHUMULLAHU BI ZUNUBIHIM WALLAHU SHADIDUL IQAB”.A Anfal ma akwai wata aya da tayi kama da wannan din ta Ali Imran din sosai,KA DA’ABI ALI FIR’AUNA WALLAZINA MIN QABLIHIM,KAFARU –a nan wajen ba KAZZABU ba,kuma a karshe yana cewa WALLAHU QAWIYUN SHADIDUL IQAB.Saboda haka da’ab da ma’anar dabi’a.
Sannan akwai kashi na biyu a wannan marhala din na wa’yanda suke su basu daukarwa kansu,basu shardantawa kansu riwaya kai tsaye daga Imam ba,zai yiwu su rawaito daga shi,zai yiwu su rawaito daga daya daga cikin ma’abuta usul,zai iya yiwuwa su rawaito daga su su biyu a tare,ko zai iya yiwuwa su rawaito daga “wasida muta’addidah”.
MARHALATUL MAJMU’ATUL KABIRA
Bayan mun ga wannan marhala din sai muka zo ya zuwa ga marhala ta biyu,wato Marhalatul Majmu’atil Kabira,wato marhala din littafai manya.A wannan marhala din ta biyu wadda itace marhalan tanaji da kuma wallafa manya manyan littafai wa’yanda a cikinsu-littafan-aka tattara abinda ke cikin hadisan da suke a marhalar farko.Wa’yancan hadisan usul din da sauransu sai aka tattaro su gabaki daya aka sanya su a littafai.Wadancan littafan na ma’abuta riwaya daga Imam (AS) kai tsaye ko ta wasida daya ko ta wasida mai adadi,sai aka dauko littafan kowanne daga cikin ma’abuta usul su dari hudu da kuma sauran sai gaba daya aka saka su a cikin wa’yannan littafan manya.
Muka ce wannan shi ya sanya in dai ka san abinda yake cikin marhala ta farko,wato da’ab din ma’abuta Al-Usul Al-Arba’u Ma’a da kuma sauransu,to,su wa’yannan littafan ne da ka sani da wancan wasaqa din,sune gabaki daya aka zo aka zuba su a cikin wa’yannan nan,wanda ya sanya mu muka ce nisba din kuskure a littafanmu ta karanta sosai idan aka kwatanta da nisba din kuskure a littafan wasunmu daga cikin Ahlus Sunna wal Jama’a.
Za ta bayyana ko bata bayyana yanzu insha Allah mauqifin A’immah (as) dangane da hana riwaya da hana rubuta hadis,riwaya da rubutun hadis,cewa mauqifinsu shine mauqifin inkar.Sun yi riwaya kuma sun rubuta hadisi,zamu karanta wannan insha Allah.Domin wannan sai ya zama hadisai maudu’ai basu da yawa a wurinmu,sannan kuma hadisai yankakku da da’ifai basu da yawa a wurinmu duk da yake akwai saboda asbab.Daga cikin asbabul wad’I,wato dalilan da suke sanya wa a kirkire hadisai shine ta’assubanci na mazhaba.Akwai asbab masu yawa na kirkiran hadisi amma daga ciki akwai ta’assubanci na mazhaba.Saboda haka kowacce mazhaba mazhaba ta kirkiri hadisai wa’yanda suke Allah bai yi masu samuwa ba saboda bunkasa ita mazhaba din,a shi’a ma akwai wa’yanda suke kagaggu amma basu kai yawan wa’yanda suke a cikin littafan sunna ba,akwai dalili na siyasa.
Ala ayyati hala,wannan dalilin na cewa wadancan littafan a marhala ta farko sune gabaki dayansu aka sa su a cikin wa’yannan manya manyan littafan,shi ya sanya ya zama hadisanmu sun fi aminci duk da farofaganda wanda ake yi akan mu amma idan mutum ya cire ta’assubanci ya tufafanta da tufafin insafi da adalci in yai bincike zai ga ni.Hadisan mu musnadai ne sosan gaske da ma’anar cewa sun tafi daga mawallafi har zuwa ga Imam Ma’asum har zuwa Annabi (sawa).
Wannan da’awan akan cewa hadisan mu basu da isnadi da’awa ce ko akan asasin jahilci ko akan asasin ta’assubanci na mazhabanci ko akan asasin kage da karya.Babu hadisan da suka kai hadisanmu cikar isnadi mutum zai iya dubawa.
Ala kulli hal,wannan itace marhala din da a cikin ta aka rubuta manya manyan littafan da suka tattaro wancan gadon na marhala ta farko.Saboda haka su wa’yannan manyan littafai sun bambamta da wa’yancan na marhala ta farko a wurin kare kare masu yawa na isnadi –saboda shi wannan  mawallafin a ce mashi Kulaini masalan,yana ambaton isnadin hadisin daga shi har zuwa halumma jarra-ta hanyar ambaton masu riwaya-daga wane,daga wane,wane yace min –daga wanda ya rubuta wannan littafin matattari-kaman kace Al-Kulaini –har zuwa mawallafin littafi na asl-kaman a ce Abban Ibn Taglib,sai kace misali Alkulaini yana ambaton isnadi daga shehin riwayar shi zuwa Abban zuwa Imam.Bai rubuta riwaya kawai yace daga Imam.Kenan akwai isnadi ko ba isnadi?Akwai.
Wato daga shehin Kulaini zuwa Abban zuwa ga Imam zuwa ga Manzon Allah(sawa).Ka dauki duk riwayan da zaka dauka,misali ka dauki riwaya a ciki Al-Kafi randomly,yace daga Muhammad Ibn Yahaya –wannan isnadin Kulaini ne zuwa riwayan da yake so ya sajjala su daga asl-daga Ahmad Ibn Muhammad,daga Husain Ibn Sa’id,daga Hasan Ibn Ya’akub,daga Abdillah Ibn Sinan,daga Baban Abdillah.Kenan daga Kulaini zuwa Abdullah Ibn Sinan.Abdullahi Ibn Sinan shi ya fadawa Al-Kulaini?To,zai ambaci wanda ya karbo daga Abdullah Ibn Sinan,daga wanda ya karbo daga wajenshi har zuwa ni Kulaini wanda na amso daga wajenshi.Sannan daga Abdullahi Ibn Sinan zuwa Imam,daga Imam zuwa Annabi zuwa Allah azza wa jal.
Wannan shine bambamcin Al-Kafiy da Al-Usul Al-Arba’u Ma’a.Menene bambamcin?shine idafa din isnad ta hanyar ambaton masu riwaya da suka afku daga wanda ya shi ya rubuta babban littafi jaami’-kaman Kulaini –wanda ya rubuta asl,daga nan kuma zuwa Imam.Bambamci daya Kenan.
Kaman lokacin da Al-Imamul Khumaini ya rubuta Al-Arba’una Hadisan,hadisi na farko da ya rubuta sai ya rubuta shi da isnadi daga kare shi zuwa Kulaini,wato ba yanda muke daukan littafin Al-Kafi muke karantawa ba,shi ba haka yake karanta riwayoyi ba.Lokacin da ya ambaci wannan isnadin me wannan yake nufi?yana nufin ya dauko littafin ne haka nan?Me yake nufi?Yana nufin ya ji daga wajen malaminshi,malaminshi ya ji daga wajen malaminshi har zuwa Al-Kulain.A yanzu muna bugatan irin wannan?muyi kira’a alash shaikh?da ijaza daga sheikh?Wadannan din basu da muhimmanci sosai a yanzu saboda tawaturin shi littafin.
A cikin Al-Arba’una Hadisan Lil Imam Ruhillah Al-Musawiy Al-Khomaini,ya zo( a hadisi na farko) yace ;
“AN ABI ABDILLLAH JA’AFAR ASSADIQ (AS) ,INNAN NABIYYA (SAWA) BA’ASA SARIYYATAN FA LAMMA RAJA’U. QALA MARHABAN BI QAUMIN QADAU AL-JIHADAL ASGARA,WA BAQIYA ALAIHIMUL  JIHADUL AKBAR,FA QILA YA RASULALLAH WA MAL JIHADUL AKBAR?QALA JIHADUN NAFS”
Sai Imam Khominiy yace :Ya bani labara(zai fadi wanda ya bashi labara din wato fa’il din) kuma ya bani ijaza “ ijazatan mukatabatan wa mushahafatan “ akan cewa in isar,ijazar kuma ya bani ne a rubuta da kuma a fadi da baki-na karanta a hannun Sheikh,wanda ya yarda da kira’a na da karatu na a hannunshi ya bani ijaza in isar,ta yaya?Ya rubuta ijazar sannan kuma ya fadi da baki.Ta rubutu ta fi ta fatar baki karfi,to,duka guda ya bani(wato Imam Khomaini).Da yawa daga manya manyan malamai da manya manyan Assiqat masu daraja suka karantar dani wannan hadisin suka bani ijaza –ijazar kala biyu;mukataba da mushafaha-daga cikinsu akwai Ash-Sheikhul Allamal Mutakallimul Faqihul Usuliyyul Adibul Mutabahhir Ash-Sheikh Muhammad Ridha Ali Allamal Wafiyush Sheikh Muhammad Taqiy ul Asfahaniy (Adamallahu Taufiqahu) a lokacin da ya zo Qum ya bani ijaza da Sheikh da Sheikh da Sheikh…..daga As-Sayyid Al-Amjad Al-Mirza Muhammad Hashim Asfahaniy daga daga daga ….har ya zo wurin WA ANISH SHEIKH ABIL QASIM JA’AFAR IBN QAULAWEH,ANISH SHEIKHIL AJAL THIQQATUL ISLAM MUHAMMAD IBN YAQUB AL-KULAINI SAHIBIL KAFIY .
Ka ga isnadinshi zuwa Alkafi,dukkan wa’yannan sune isnadin Imam Khomaini zuwa Al-Kafi.Ba daukan Al-Kafiy yayi ya karanta ba.Wa’yannan sune isnadinshi zuwa Kulaini,daga Kulaini sai yace;”Assiqatul Islam Muhammad Ibn Yaqub Sahaibil Kafiy,an Ali Ibn Ibrahim Al-Qummy an Abih,anil Naufaliy,anis Sakuniy,an Abiy Abdillah  (as)”,sai ya fadi hadisin ilah akhirih.
Kenan yanzu in kana son ka san Sheikunnan riwayar Imam a wannan wurin,su wane ne su?Yanzu in zai zo da hadisi na biyu,da hadisi na uku da hadisi na arba’in,ba sai an maimaita ma wannan isnadin ba.

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